Published Leave a comment

Questions & Answers: Rechargeable Batteries

Rechargeable battery benefits

Ni-MH rechargeable or disposable alkaline battery?

Ladattavista paristoista löytyy heikohkosti tietoa, esimerkiksi hakutulos ladattavat vs tavalliset paristot antaa vuoden 2011 testejä ja Ylen uutisen akkuparistojen huonosta tunnettavuudesta. Vuoden 2011 uutinen ”Uudet akkuparistot tunnetaan heikosti” voisi yhtä hyvin olla tältäkin vuodelta. Tässä artikkelissa perehdytään ladattavien, eli akkuparistojen, ominaisuuksiin.

Rechargeable batteries have evolved tremendously. Today, rechargeable batteries have a Low Self Discharge (LSD) feature, a memory effect that is non-existent and, in addition, save money and the environment.

Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) is a much more cost-effective battery-like material than a traditional alkali. When the alkaline battery begins to leak inside the device as it ages, this phenomenon does not occur with NiMh batteries due to a chemically sealed shell. And best of all; While the alkaline battery is waste after one discharge, the NiMh battery still has hundreds of charging cycles left!

There is no bad target for using rechargeable batteries today. A good rule of thumb is that rechargeable batteries pay for themselves after about six charging cycles (compared to alkaline batteries). This estimate has been based on the purchase costs of the charger. And the environmental issue should not be forgotten; Reusable battery battery should be renewed after about four years of active use, the best battery batteries will last longer when used properly. Traditional alkaline batteries may be purchased several times a year (of course depends on the intended use and the device used).

Rechargeable batteries include:

LSD, Low Self Discharge: Low self-discharge. In the old days (in the early 2000s), the batteries erupted by themselves. LSD batteries will keep their charges for a long time. A fully charged NiMh battery will discharge less than 30% in five years. That is, for example, 1000 mAh battery has capacity left after five years after charging more than 700 mAh. Eneloop batteries have a promise of 70% capacity even after 10 years.

Eneloop rechargeable battery self-discharge

Memory effect: A feature of old nickel batteries, where the battery capacity is reduced. The battery "remembers" the charge to which the battery has been discharged. If 50% of the 2000 mAh battery charge is continuously used and then charged, the battery will no longer discharge 1000 mAh lower. The 2000 mAh battery has thus become a 1000 mAh battery. Although today nimh batteries do not exhibit much memory effect, it is recommended that the battery battery be completely discharged every 10-15 charging cycles.

Ni-Cd battery memory phenomenon. Picture of LimeWit blog

Cost-effectiveness: The four-piece battery package costs about 10-15 euros. They can withstand at least 500 charging cycles, the best of them.  The charger costs about 15-30 euros. The cost of charging is some centimeters per battery pack. When you add it all up, there's a price of about 45-65 euros for a four-piece battery battery throughout its life cycle! A comparable number of alkaline batteries would have cost 1000 euros! (500 two euro packages of alkaline batteries)


What can I use the NiMh battery?

Virtually any high-consumption device where you would use alkaline batteries. For example, cameras, flashlights and electric toys. Devices that you use frequently and what require multiple charge cycles/battery replacements are the most complete applications for NiMh batteries.

When should I not use NiMh batteries?

The alkaline battery is a better option for low-consumption devices such as wall clocks and smoke detectors. When the alkaline battery starts to "die", it stops the power supply quickly. While the NiMh battery battery may be frictionated at low voltage for a relatively long time. This may lead to unexpected events such as leaving the clock or the smoke alarm inoperating (without the battery run out).

How do you get the most out of NiMH batteries?

  1. Keep them safe! If you are investing in rechargeable batteries, you should think carefully about storage. Especially if you own multiple sets. If you are constantly losing your rechargeable batteries, you will not get the benefit. Think of a place in your apartment where you store all your rechargeable batteries. In addition, consider the system to ensure a smooth rotation of each battery set (set in use, set charging, set ready for replacement etc...).
  2. Avoid using batteries at very hot temperatures and store them away from sunlight.
  3. Regular download. Do not allow the batteries to be completely empty for long periods of time. After use, fully charge the batteries, they will keep their charge for a long time (remember the low self-discharge of new batteries!)
  4. Discharge your battery every 10-15 charging cycles completely (and fully charge!)
  5. Avoid overloading! Batteries and battery batteries don't like overcharging at all. This is one of the fastest ways to ruin the battery (especially li-ion batteries even dangerous!) Use only high-quality chargers with overcharge protection.


Welcome to the environmentally friendly and money-saving way to use battery-powered electronics!







Published Leave a comment

Batteries of the future

batteries in the future li-ion replacement

Future batteries serve promising unprecedented performance. Have you ever wondered why your rechargeable battery is just lithium ion or lithium polymer? How can I develop batteries?

Lithium-ion batteries in particular have borne the battery industry since they entered the market in the 1990s. Since then, the development of batteries has been mainly based on the improvement of lithium-ion batteries, but the actual development jump has allowed itself to wait almost 30 years. It is not a question of lack of entrepreneurship, but of the strict demands created by the market. Announcements of new innovations come on a weekly basis, but most are economically unprofitable or too unstable for widespread use.

Where's the electric car 1,000 km on the road? – Battery preparation challenges

Technological innovation alone will not be enough if the battery cannot be made affordable enough to produce. To be successful in the market, batteries must pass strict safety criteria and provide sufficient capacity/durability ratio to the price.


Productization of batteries

When assessing the functionality and usability of a battery, the focus will be on eight areas in which all the battery must meet the required criteria. These areas are:

1) Capacity.

The longer the battery has power after charging, the better.  This aspect is illustrated by the battery ampereric hour Ah. The bigger Ah is, the longer the battery will generate power. Capacity is usually increased at the expense of the discharge current and vice versa.

2) Discharge current.

This tells you how much power the battery is designed to give up in use. Electrical tools usually require a higher discharge current, which in turn has a lower capacity of the batteries.

3) Affordable price.

The aim is to cover the costs of manufacturing with mass production. Mass production, on the other hand, requires a large number of users on the market for the battery. New technology initially increases production costs, especially in high-performance battery.

4) Long service life.

Service life is one of the most important aspects, especially for large, more expensive battery packs. Existing electric cars are criticised for their battery, which currently lasts for about 8-10 years. If the durability of these batteries were to be increased to 20 years, the use of electric cars would be much more profitable, even if the battery in question would be slightly more expensive.

Existing li-ion batteries can withstand about 500-1000 recharges depending on use. The older battery chemistry Ni-MH can take 2,000 recharges, but they weigh more at a lower energy density.

5) Safety.

The safety risks associated with batteries are constantly taken into account more closely, as a result of which various regulations have also been drawn up to ensure the safety of the battery. The safety aspect is one of the most common weak links in new experimental battery.

For example, the Li-Po battery can be formatted in almost any shape. The battery also has a high energy density (high capacity vs total), but its use is limited by mechanical weakness. (see lower gif)

1 Li-Po battery fire

6) Wide operating environment.

No battery can withstand cold or hot temperatures for long periods of time. Manufacturers have designed insulating layers that protect batteries due to improved frost resistance, but current battery chemistry will lose properties in hot and cold.

7) Toxicity.

For environmental reasons, cadmium and mercury-based batteries have already been decommissioned and replaced by new metals. In Europe, the same is being tried for lead-acid batteries, but no economic substitute with the same performance has been found for this.

Nickel and lithium-based batteries contain low-toxic material, but still pose a risk of contamination if they are disposed of carelessly. The future battery should therefore contain less environmentally harmful materials, which poses a major challenge for manufacturers. View Proakku article about recycling batteries here.


8) Fast charging time.

Fast charging” eli pikalataus on akkujen uusin trendi. Kaikki akkumateriaalit eivät tue pikalatausta, kuten lyijyhappoakku. Pikalataus vaatii tarkat olosuhteet toimiakseen, esimerkiksi akun on oltava huoneenlämpöinen ja hyväkuntoinen. Korkeilla virroilla lataaminen kuluttaa akkua huomattavasti, ellei latausta tehdä ”älykkäästi,” esimerkiksi 80% varauksessa latausvirtaa tiputetaan akun säästämiseksi.

The challenge for manufacturers is to design a battery that also enables fast charging times without sacrificing battery availability or safety.

Battery that meets all criteria

Many of the battery innovations under development meet or exceed the criteria for certain areas, but remain incomplete in others. This in practice prevents the battery from being sold to consumers before the battery is developed to be more balanced.

For example, a lithium-air (Li-air) technology battery would have a theoretical capacity of 13kWh/kg, while the corresponding capacity of the lithium-ion battery would be 265 Wh/kg – the Li-air battery would therefore have almost five times the capacity. On the other hand, the battery would currently only last 50 charging cycles, which is why it is not worth placing on the market.

If you want to review the importance of battery chemistry and understand anodes and cathodes, read our article: How to ruin your battery

Non-toxicity or a battery that binds carbon dioxide when it charges? – Batteries of the future


There is currently fierce competition among the battery industry as to who will be able to replace the lithium-ion battery. Competition is brutal, as the production of batteries must take more and more environmental friendliness into account. This is in addition to the eight points mentioned above. Yet battery prototypes have already been manufactured, some of which are promising.

Here are a few examples of the battery we may see in the coming years:

Non-toxic zinc-manganese Zn–Mn

In Australia, the patented battery uses non-toxic zinc and manganese to produce a battery with a high energy density. The battery also has an aqueous electrolyte that prevents it from igniting. The battery price is estimated to be less than 9 euros/kWh, while the current li-ion battery costs about 265 euros per kWh.

The battery is intended for applications where the weight, size and safety of the battery are the most important factors – especially for cars, aviation vessels, and also for household and commercial purposes. With existing zinc-manganese batteries, this battery differs by enabling recharging, recycling and high energy density.

According to the battery developer, the need to store sustainably produced energy safely and cost-effectively increases every day. Existing battery materials such as lithium, lead and cadmium are far from being able to cope, especially in environmental friendliness. Zinc-manganese battery would provide a way to store energy in a larger scale than the current solutions.

Carbon dioxide-binding battery


What if your battery looked like this? Carbon dioxide-binding battery.

A battery solution, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), a state-of-the-art green technology, is able to absorb carbon dioxide from the air. The materials in the actual are not used to represent new and innovative technologies in this battery, but rather the principle of how the battery works.

The battery cells are built lobed, slightly apart, to allow airflow through the battery. As the battery is charging, air flows through it, from which the battery cells, assisted by low electrical current and chemical reaction, absorb the carbon dioxide that is included in the airflow. Therefore, the air from one end of the battery is cleaner. When the battery discharges, it releases the carbon dioxide that is bound to it. This pure carbon dioxide can be used, for example, for plants in greenhouses or for the production of bubble soft drinks.

In other words, when the battery is charged, the battery binds carbon dioxide from the surrounding air and releases pure CARBON dioxide for industrial use or storage. This requires only electricity to clean the air. Compared to other carbon dioxide-binding methods, the battery is actually quite energy efficient at 278 kWh/bound tonne of CARBON.


Metal-free battery

Nikola Motor, a manufacturer of hydrogen trucks, has said that it is developing a battery that would revolutionise the electric car industry. The new battery would own a double energy density, would be 60% lighter and half cheaper than the current Tesla lithium-ion battery. The battery pack would use completely new cells that do not use nickel, cobalt or toxic metals, which are typically found in lithium-ion cells.

The new technology battery would increase the range of electric cars from the current approximately 480 km to 960 km per charge. The size and weight of the battery would increase only slightly, if at all. Since the material does not need to be mined, the battery is cheaper. The new sensor would be exactly 50% cheaper per kWh than a lithium-ion battery. In addition, the environmental impact of mining will be reduced.

Nikola hasn't revealed the details, but the prototype should come at the end of 2020. According to the manufacturer, others made a mistake trying to find a solution to existing technologies when designing a clean slate allows for winning battery technology.


Future battery materials for seawater

The US INSTITUTE for IBM Research is developing a battery that, like a non-metallic battery, would eliminate the need to use heavy metals such as cobalt and nickel. With the new battery chemistry, IBM seeks to overcome the problems of the availability and ethics of heavy metal mining (child labour, corruption, polluting). The most interesting thing about the battery is the separation of the materials used from seawater.

Based on the first tests, it was found that it would be able to bypass the lithium-ion battery at a lower price, faster charging time, higher power and energy density, and low flammability of the electrolyte.

The battery cathode does not use nickel or cadmium, and its electrolyte is a safe liquid with a high flash point. Innovation promises great potential, especially for the electric car industry, where the flammability, price and charging time of the battery play a major role. IBM battery is promised to reach 80% charge level with only five minutes of charging time. In addition, the battery can be designed for a long life, making it a good alternative to, for example, new energy infrastructures, where shelf life and stability play a leading role.

batteries in the future new technologies

Trends develop batteries

Environmental friendliness in the manufacture, use and reuse of batteries is one of the biggest trends affecting the battery industry. In the fight for the preservation of our environment, the batteries of the future must be heavy metal-free, but nevertheless offer unprecedented potential to their users. The raw materials of the battery must be renewable, sustainably sourced, but the battery must still be cheaper than ever in order to be able to displace old, environmentally harmful battery models. It's not an easy task.

It is possible to produce the battery in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way, as demonstrated by the innovations mentioned earlier. Mass production of the battery and its exports to the market is the point where the actual challenges are hit: the battery must meet all the required elements in order to be put into production. In addition, the factories and production lines required to build new batteries still require massive investments.

What is the future equivalent of a lithium-ion battery?

It is likely that heavy metals in the battery cells will be replaced by some renewable material. The life cycle of the battery is no longer part of the extraction of raw materials in poor conditions by child labour, and it is easier to recycle and reuse it. Replacing heavy metals with other materials now allows restrictions, such as a range, to be breached, for example in the case of electric cars. With longer service life and more secure battery life, the need for cars powered by petrol and diesel engines will also be reduced.

The battery of the future should therefore offer us more, in a more environmentally friendly way.

The change in the battery industry is not limited to batteries and their users, but has an impact on the whole planet. As electric cars become more polluting, polluting internal combustion engines are decreasing, the storage of energy on a large scale reduces polluting energy production and the reuse of batteries reduces the need for extraction of raw materials to meet the ever-increasing demand.


As a result, favouring rechargeable batteries and batteries today, both by users and retailers, will drive the battery industry inexorably faster than ever towards the next green battery. Replace disposable batteries with rechargeable batteries and reduce waste load.

Proakku Jesse, the



Published Leave a comment

Battery recycling

18650 lithium battery recycling

Battery recycling

Electronics are developing at an incredible rate. At the same time, the need for energy that goes with it is increasing. This means an increasing need for different types of batteries and accumulators. It is estimated that the need for different types of batteries and accumulators increases tenfold every five years. On the other hand, this also means an increase in the number of batteries and accumulators that have completed their life cycle. But what to do with a dead battery? And what happens in recycling to an old alkaline battery? The purpose of the Battery Recycling article is to shed light on the issue and provide tips on recycling.


Why recycle?

Why not go the easy way? You buy batteries from the store on your pocket tag, use batteries, and at some point you throw the old ones in the trash. Out of sight, out of mind. This is how you think. But does that make sense?

Every year, hundreds of thousands of tons of battery or battery materials go into landfill. This means that an absolutely absurd amount of environmentally damaging substances, such as lead and nickel, will slowly end up being absorbed into the soil of the landfill with rainwater. From the soil, substances slowly end up in groundwater, polluting it.

At the same time, these landfill batteries contain a lot of materials that could be used either in new energy sources or in appliances. The raw materials used in batteries and accumulators are not renewable, i.e. once excavated from the soil, there will be no new replacement. Batteries in landfills therefore consume natural resources without being able to be used further.

Living standards improve, consumption increases

The middle class is growing around the world. As a rule, middle-class people want all the modern comfort products that developed countries enjoy. These products include battery and battery-operated electronics. However, in the growing need, we must remember that the earth has only a limited number of raw materials and that the earth's carrying capacity is already partly at the limit.

It is estimated that in 2030 the world will have a population of 9 billion, of which 3 billion will be in the middle class. In the United States alone (323 million inhabitants), 3 billion batteries or accumulators are thrown each year. If the entire middle class behaved like Americans, this means 28 billion pieces of discarded batteries every year. This, on the other hand, means hundreds of thousands of tons of raw material, which should be extracted from the soil for new products.

But how does recycling help preserve this earth for posterity? The answer is raw material, raw material, raw material! Depending on the type of battery, up to 50-90% of the material of batteries and accumulators is recycled as secondary raw materials. This means a smaller need to extract new raw material from the soil. For example, more than 50% of the world's lead production comes from recycled battery. Another good example is the cobalt in Li-ion's battery. Cobalt is an extremely rare element, mainly of which is the Democratic Republic of Congo. The production conditions are terrible and child labour is being used. The recycled Li-ion battery recovers 25-30% cobalt, which can be reused.

When you take batteries and batteries to collection points, you ensure that the ingredients they contain continue to circulate in the material market. More than one million kilos of batteries and small batteries are delivered from collection points to nivalaan akkuser oy processing plant each year. There, battery and battery types are sorted into different fractions to allow the best possible separation and use of the raw materials such as nickel, iron and cobalt. Today, even zinc and manganese of alkaline batteries can be processed into trace elements used in fertilisers in Finland.


What happens to the battery in recycling?

Alkaline battery

Alkaline batteries account for about 80% of all batteries and accumulators recycled in Finland. When the alkali are separated by the line, they are crushed. The first separation of the alkali crushis is magnetic iron (less than 25%), which is processed in Finland as a secondary raw material for construction materials, cars and tools, among other things. The remaining so-called black pulp is delivered to the zinc melting house, where the zinc contained in the pulp (about 25 %) recycling for the construction, automotive and pharmaceutical industries, among others. Zinc and manganese contained in the black mass are also made into ecological nutrient products for agriculture.

In the process, the batteries are crushed, and the treated mass undergoes the dissolution process with filters and cleaning. Surplus harmful substances, such as nickel and mercury, are delivered to a hazardous waste facility.

The final product is a liquid solution containing trace elements, accompanied by manganese, zinc, potassium and sulphur. The solution can be applied, for example, with irrigation water to promote the growth of food and crops.

Recycling from raw materials for alkaline batteries will be reused by about 80%!

Li-ion battery recycling

laptop battery cells
Laptop batteries are most commonly made up of 18,650 li-ion cells.


Cobalt-rich lithium batteries, mainly used in mobile phones and laptops, are treated at the Akkuser recycling plant in a two-stage crushing process.

The fractions from the processing include, inter alia, 25-30 % cobalt and 15-20 % copper, which are recirculated into industrial raw materials. Cobalt is an important raw material in batteries, and copper is needed in the electronics industry.

Cobalt is delivered to the Cobalt refinery in Kokkola, where recycled cobalt is processed for reuse in industry. Cobalt recycling saves not only energy but also virgin cobalt.

Li-ion batteries with low cobalt or cobalt-free batteries, such as those used in tools, contain copper, nickel, manganese, aluminium and iron, depending on the type of battery. So far, these batteries account for a relatively small proportion of all batteries and accumulators that end up in recycling.

Li-ion battery recycling
Study of Wiley Analytical Science website: Reapplication of the Recovered Materials as Lithium Ion Battery Materials


Coin cell batteries

Coin cell batteries are mechanically separated from others and distributed to large and small. Small are often so-called silver oxide batteries from their chemical fields, which contain 2-4% silver. They are forwarded to a precious metal processor for recovery, and silver can be reused, for example, in the electronics industry.

NiMH batteries

Nickel metal hydride batteries, such as rechargeable batteries resembling an alkaline battery, are treated after sorting. Akkuser has developed its own Dry-Technology method to crush batteries and separate different substances from the cracking by magnetic ally and other mechanical methods.

In nickel metal hydride skuas, the main metals to be recovered are nickel and cobalt, which are approximately 35% in total. Nickel is needed, for example, in the manufacture of stainless steel and rare cobalt, especially in smartphone batteries.

Upon arrival at the Akkuser facility, nimh batteries are first crushed. After that, the extracting of the walrus is extracted, for example, nickel and cobalt (a total of 35%). Recycled nickel saves up to 75% of energy compared to virgin material mining.

battery battery recycling

Lead-acid batteries

Box-like sealed lead-groom batteries contain between 65% and 90% lead, which is very harmful when released into the environment, but is easy to recycle. From the Nivala processing plant Akkuser, lead-acid batteries are delivered to foreign lead-acid recycling plants through a finnish collector, where lead is recovered and used mainly in the manufacture of new lead-acid batteries. The process also includes the neutralisation of the acids contained in the batteries.

lead-acid battery recycling
Picture akkukierrä


Nickel cadium

For example, nickel-cadmium batteries used in old, cordless tools are delivered to recycling plants suitable from Nivala, where the materials contained therein are separated in a multi-stage process.

Ferronickel contained in nickel-cadmium batteries (60 %) recycled for re-use in steel making and cadmium (15%) for example, in the manufacture of new batteries. Using recycled nickel saves up to 75% of energy compared to virgin material mining.

How do I recycle batteries?

You can easily recycle batteries and small batteries on a shopping trip. As a rule, batteries and small batteries can be returned free of charge and without the need to purchase a new product for shops selling batteries/accumulators. If the container is not visible, please contact the store staff for assistance.

However, large lithium batteries are not collected in stores, which are used in electronic range devices such as electric bikes, mopeds and scooters, as well as balance boards. Their collection points can be found in kierratys.infosearchservice. Read more about collection points here.


Be sure to tape the battery and battery terminals before leaving them in the container. With this easy gig, make sure that the recirculation container does not catch fire due to short-circuiting. For detailed safety instructions, see paristokierrä .

battery recycling
Batteries and accumulators are not part of other waste, from which heavy metals end up in nature and water courses.


There are only a limited amount of raw materials in the world. As consumption increases, only recycling can ensure the adequacy of the raw material! In addition, batteries entering landfill or nature pollute and leak harmful substances, which may contaminate groundwater! You too make an eco-design and recycle your batteries and batteries. With little effort, you'll be saving nature and leaving behind a cleaner world for posterity. Battery recycling is easy!

Remember that many old batteries can be rebuilt! Send us your old battery and we'll put new life into it with new battery cells and recycle the old ones. We can get all kinds of batteries to be used, e.g. e-bike batteries. Read more Proakku battery packs on the sides!

Checklist for recycling:

  • Tape the terminals of batteries and accumulators to avoid the risk of fire! The exhausted batteries always have some charge left, which causes a short circuit when hitting metal, for example.
  • Pack leaky and rusty batteries and batteries in a separate plastic bag so that irritants do not end up on the skin or other surfaces.
  • Keep used and taped batteries out of the reach of children.
  • Take the batteries and accumulators to the collection during a shopping trip, so that they cannot accumulate in large quantities in your home.

What can I return to the shops?

  • Alkaline batteries (standard disposable batteries: e.g. AA and AAA pole batteries, coin-cell batteries and 9V-pop-up batteries)
  • Lithium batteries (standard disposable batteries: e.g. AA pole batteries and 9V batteries)
  • Coin cell batteries
  • Nimh (rechargeable batteries and accumulators for cordless tools, e.g. non-wired batteries)
  • nickel-cadmium batteries NiCd (batteries for cordless tools, e.g.
  • Small lithium batteries (for mobile phones, laptops, backup power supplies, cameras, cordless tools,
  • Small sealed lead-beam batteries (batteries for ups, solar cell and alarm systems,

What can't be returned to the store?

  • Large lithium batteries " Large lithium batteries such as batteries for electric bikes, balance ferries, mopeds, quadbikes and top-level moist cutters can be returned to regional collection points. The nearest regional collection point can be found at: kierrä
  • Vehicle batteries • The nearest regional collection point can be found at: kierrä
  • Large batteries designed exclusively for industrial or professional use " Contact your battery distributor for recycling instructions.

Remember these:

Take him to where you bought it.

No batteries and accumulators are covered by mixed waste!

Battery recycling is top notch in Finland – by recycling you support Finnish innovation!


Published 1 kommentti

How do you ruin your battery?

battery capacity decreases

Why is the battery capacity decreasing? Why doesn't the old battery keep power anymore?

Your phone battery lasted a year ago in normal use for 24 hours, but nowadays not even half a day? The phone on the charge says it's charged, but after a while, the battery level is only 70%? Why should I pay attention to using the battery?

The purpose of this article is to familiarize yourself with the condition of the batteries and the issues associated with charging them, which, especially in the longer term, are of great importance for battery life. If you don't want to read the entire article, you'll find a summary of the issues discussed in the article at the end.

Let's start by studying the battery policy a little bit:

  1. How does the battery generate power?

When talking about a battery, it means a set of two or more battery cells. Battery cells are usually packed inside a metal or plastic package. When a positive and negative pole is added to this packaging, we have a pack in our hands that already looks like a battery.

The battery cell generates electrical current by means of a chemical reaction. The more battery cells in the battery, the more power it can generate. But what is the chemical reaction that happens in the battery cell?


The main components of a single battery cell are a positive electrode, i.e. a cathode (in red), a negative electrode or anade (green), and a differentiating chemical called an electrolyte (in gray). When the cathode and the anode are combined with conductive material, such as a metal conductor (blue), chemical reactions begin to occur in the battery cell: one of these reactions produces electrons and positively charged ions in the anode. Positive ions flow into the electrolyte, while electrons flow through an external circuit (a wire connecting the anode and cathode) to the cathode.

If an electrically operated device, such as a lamp, is connected to an external circuit, the electrons will cause the lamp to ignite by flow ing along the external circuit. At the same time, another chemical reaction occurs in the cathode, in which the electrons entering it are combined with the ions.

The above process is called discharge of the battery. When the battery generates electrical current, the chemicals inside the battery cells gradually turn into other chemicals. As a result, the cell's ability to generate power fades, the cell's charge slowly decreases until over time the cell is powerless.

When the battery is charged, the operations that occur when discharged reverse: the electrons flow from caking to anode.


  1. The battery performance of a two-year-old smartphone is just a shadow even more?

The battery's working principle is broadly the same regardless of the type of battery (lithium battery, nickel battery, lead-acid battery, etc.). Disassembling and charging the battery consumes it, which means that the battery will become unusable over time.

One way to measure battery durability is to look at how many charging cycles the battery lasts. For example, a typical lithium-ion battery lasts about 300-500 charge cycles depending on the use of the battery, as well as the stress of the battery. Since then, the battery is not yet unusable, but its maximum capacity has fallen to less than 80% of the original. This calculation cannot be prevented – but it can be accelerated by using the battery incorrectly.

Let's take a look at the battery performance decrease with the following illustration. The picture shows a traditional battery, but you can think of it as any type of battery – the operating principle is the same.


In the photo, the battery is divided into an active and dead part.

The active part consists of the available energy, i.e. how much power the battery has. In addition, the active section may have an empty area that can be fully loaded. You should be concerned about the dead part of the battery: it cannot be recharging and does not store energy. In addition, it is a burden on the active part of the battery.

The battery's performance is slowly starting to decrease from the first day of the battery. As mentioned earlier, when the battery discharges, the chemicals contained in the battery cells become other chemicals. Fortunately, in most modern battery cells, self-discharge is minimal.

Discharge of lithium-ion batteries means, among other things, oxidation of the battery cell as part of normal use. When the battery is charged, it returns this reaction to the starting point – almost. Charging the battery returns the battery very close to its starting point, from which the battery was discharged. However, part of the chemical that has been transformed inside the battery cell remains in the changed state permanently, forming the cornerstone for the growth of the dead part.

Battery capacity decreases

battery capacity decreases

In other words, when charging a new battery for the first time, the battery returns to 99.9% compared to its original state. Noteworthy is that the battery still shows 100% of the battery level. The next time the battery is charged, it will only charge 99.8% compared to its original state — when the battery still reports a 100% charge level. For this reason, especially for smartphones, it is worth remembering that the battery is a consumable – when the battery capacity and power are waning, it's time to buy a new battery, not necessarily a phone.

In addition to the above reason, the battery capacity can be reduced, for example, for lithium-ion batteries, maintaining the battery cell charge (storage) in violation of the manufacturer's instructions. The li-ion battery cell should charge more than 3.92V/cell (approx. 70% charged), or the electrolyte inside the battery cell begins to solidify, forming walls in front of the anode, preventing a reaction in the graphite anode.

This increases the internal resistance of the cell, accelerating battery wear. Therefore, do not empty the lithium battery! In fact, it is best to use the lithium-ion battery when it is 30% to 80%.

Maintaining the battery cell charge above 4.10V/cell or when the battery temperature is high, the electrolyte inside the battery cell is slowly oxidized in the cathode. This can lead to a sudden drop in capacity. Therefore, keeping the lithium-ion battery on continuous charging should be avoided. To charge lithium batteries, use a smart chargerthat identifies the needs of the battery.

If your battery has died, read the choice of new battery in our article: Best 18650 Battery? How to choose the right battery


  1. What things should i keep in mind so that you don't impair battery performance by doing your own?

Maintaining battery performance does not involve black magic or nuclear physics, in fact, the battery behaves in many ways as humans do: it likes clean, light indoor work and constant, room temperature, but also works in varying conditions – for a shorter period of time.

When you're using a new battery, it's a good idea to be aware that it hasn't reached its full potential in terms of capacity – it only reaches it after a few charging cycles. This means that when a new battery comes in use, it usually has about 85% of its capacity, but after a few chargings it rises to 100% or at least very close to it.

Therefore, when using a new battery, it would be good – if possible, to load on ascent line: start using the battery with a small load, charge it, increase the load, reload. This is also called the battery run-in. Battery run-in applies to most battery types.

Lithium-ion battery manufacturers state that their batteries are at their full potential from the outset, but based on user-specific experience, the battery is available with low in-take power, especially if the battery has been stored for a long time.

Battery storage

When not using the battery, store it in a dry temperature of 15°C – 20°C. Do not allow the battery to freeze as it permanently damages the molecular structure of the molecules inside the battery cells. Charge and maintain the battery to be stored at 50-70% of its capacity, depending on the type of battery. This prevents the harmful battery from being deeply discharged, which occurs when the battery level drops below 2.5V.

When using the battery, attention should be paid to surrounding conditions – extreme conditions such as cold and hot are harmful to the battery. The battery's ability to generate power decreases with the temperature as chemical reactions slow down inside the battery cells. When you use your smartphone in the cold, your phone may suddenly report that the battery is low and turn off. However, your battery level does not fall dramatically from 70% to zero: due to slow-motion chemical reactions, your battery will not be able to generate enough power for your phone to continue to function, allowing your phone to interpret the battery as empty and shut down to protect your battery.

When the battery temperature rises due to load or external temperature, the resistance or resistance of chemical reactions inside the battery cells increases, reducing the battery voltage. To maintain the voltage, the battery would have to work more, which increases the battery temperature, increasing the resistance. That's how we have a treadmill ready. The result, however, the battery voltage drops rapidly, and the device on the battery will turn off when the voltage drops.


Charging the battery correctly
Use a charger suitable for charging batteries, preferably one that determines the appropriate charging current itself and automatically decides charging. You can find our smart charger offering for Li-Ion batteries by clicking on the image.


The battery is charged with different manufacturer's recommendations, depending on the type of battery. Some batteries, such as a lead-acid battery, are not picky for charging: if the voltage produced by the charger is appropriate, the battery may be in the charger for long periods of time without damaging the battery. However, nickel-based ( Ni-Cd , Ni-MH) batteries should not be kept charged in vain (this is the case when storing the battery).

The lithium-ion battery will not be damaged even if the battery is not fully charged and the charges are random. If the charger does not charge a single battery cell above 4.20V, the battery will not be damaged even if it is fully connected to the charger.

For lithium-ion and nickel batteries, so-called fast charging methods are available, charging the battery up to 50% in just 30 minutes. For fast charging, it is worth noting that while recovery in the battery cell is calm when charging, this step is accelerated in quick charging.

Fast charging risks that side reactions will occur in the process that reduce the battery condition. Therefore, "fast charge" and "ultra charge" are high-risk methods, which is why they should be avoided. These two should not be confused with the third, general method, "rapid charge", which is quite safe for the battery.

Check out our smart battery chargers for both li-ion batteries and rechargeable batteries: proakku .en/multi-function chargers/

battery maintenance and capacity


  1. Summary


  • The battery generates power by chemical reactions. This consumes the battery, which means that the battery has its own life span.
  • The battery consists of two or more battery cells. Inside the battery cell there is a positive electrode cathode, a negative electrode anode, and a chemical between them, an electrolyte.
  • Battery life is measured on the charges it can withstand. For example, a typical lithium-ion battery lasts from 300 to 500 charge cycles before its capacity has fallen to less than 80% of the original. You won't be able to increase the number of charge cycles your battery offers, but with the right action, you can maximize the number of charge cycles. You can also use the wrong action to reduce the number of times you charge — a significant number.
  • The battery can be divided into two parts when viewed, active and dead. The active part is a healthy battery, the dead part, in turn, a portion that is no longer able to be utilized and that takes up the capacity of the battery.
  • To keep your battery running, consider the following:
    • It's a good idea to drive the new battery in – start loading the battery with a light load and increase it with a scent, charge the battery when its charge level has fallen below 40%.
    • Store the battery in a dry and about 15°C – 20°C and charge it to about 40-60%, depending on the type of battery. Monitor the battery level and charge if necessary.
    • Avoid using and charging the battery when the battery is cold or hot. Keep in mind that the surrounding conditions also affect – in cold weather, the temperature of the battery also drops, while when it rises when hot, it rises.
    • Find out how the battery manufacturer has instructed you to charge the battery type — with the wrong battery charge method, you can quickly ruin your battery.
    • Choose a smart charger — get the most out of your batteries. Reliable Smart Chargers HERE
    • Avoid "fast charge" and "ultra chrage" charging method. "Rapid charge" is the safest fast charge.

Remember that most batteries can get a new life by making a dosing! Check out our field and cost ing service HERE. If you need new 18650 batteries, read our article: How do I choose the right battery?


Proakku Jesse, the



Published Leave a comment

Best 18650 battery? How to choose the right battery?


What is the best 18650 battery? There are dozens of manufacturers alone. Why should we pay attention to even the choice of battery cell when you can order less than a euro piece of 18650 batteries with much higher capacity from China?

spot fake 18650

When selecting a battery, account shall be taken of at least:

  1. Purpose, do I need a lot of power or capacity?
  2. Do I have protective electronics or do I need a protective circuit battery?
  3. Flat-top vs. button top – do I need a button-headed battery for my device?
best 18650 battery on Samsung
In good company. Pictured is LG, Sanyo, Samsung, Panasonic and Sony 18650 batteries.


Major and high quality manufacturers include LG, Samsung, Sanyo, Sony and Panasonic. Other brands are often re-packaged batteries, i.e. awrapnew wrapper is placed around the battery cell with its own logo. The challenge is to know what's under the wrapper. Especially cheaper Chinese brands can change cells under the wrapper on the fly. This may not be the case with the same cell even if you buy the same batteries.


Best 18650 battery:

Sony VTC5A is the best 18650 battery

Multi-skilled processor – Sony VTC5A 

The Sony VTC5A is an excellent battery in its versatility. In tests, it provides 30A continuous current. The 2600mAh capacity is a really good performance with such a high current battery. A sure choice for vape enthusiasts and all hard-use tools!

+ Consistent quality from a reliable manufacturer

+ Gives a lot of power

+ 2500mAh capacity is sufficient for a good time

– Heats up greatly (90°C) if dismantled with 30A discharge for a long time

See also good 20A discharge current options for Samsung INR18650-25R 2500mAh 20A or LG HE4 2500mAh 20A


Sanyo 18650 battery

High capacity – Sanyo NCR18650GA

Sanyo NCR18650GA 3450mAh gives 10A discharge current! 10A is enough for lights that compare to the sun that can be made by cyclists!

+ Provides steady voltage even at high discharge bars

+ Reliable quality

+ Massive capacity for 10A battery

+ Construction to reduce heating

– The voltage throws more than 10A/30W with a demolition

See also hothead LG MJ1 3500mAh 10A.


best 18650 battery

Value for money – Samsung INR18650-30Q 3000mAh 20A

The Samsung INR18650-30Q does not reach the creek just like the Sony VTC5A level, but the cheaper price combined with Samsung quality makes this sensor an excellent option. Suitable for attacking and tools due to high but even discharge current.

+ Voltage does not fluctuate even with 20A

+ 3000mAh capacity – Samsung can be trusted

+ Quick charge 4A

– Can't cope with Sony VTC5A demolition

See also long-life contender: Sony VTC6 3000mAh 15A


Xtar 3500mAh Circuit Protector Battery for Flashlight

Best 18650 battery for flashlight: Xtar 18650 3500mAh 10A, with protective circuit

The Xtar 18650 is an excellent choice for flashlight and other low-power devices (e.g. dog radars). The 3500mAh capacity is sufficient for a long time, but 10A power does not leave anyone cold. 10A discharge current gives power to the lamp as if it were a lamp. The circuit ensures that the battery does not discharge or charge too much.

+ 3500mAh capacity

+ Panasonic high quality sensor

+ 10A discharge current and protective circuit!

+ Cheaper than Nitecore batteries

– More expensive than Samsung and Panasonic circuit batteries

Quality with a lower budget: Panasonic NCR18650B 3400mAh circuit and Samsung INR18650-35E 3500mAh circuit.

18650 battery comparison selection criteria:

1. Power vs. capacity

There is limited space in the battery, so you can't get everything in one shell. The batteries provide either a highdischarge or high capacity. The figures are given in amperes (A) and milliamper hours (mAh). The best 18650 battery for you depends on whether the battery is designed for a flashlight that requires little power or for attacking/power tools that require a lot of power at once.

LED lights require little power. For example, the excellent Xtar B20 Pilot II flashlight delivers 1100 lumens of light output. The maximum power of the CREE XM-L2 LED is expressed at 10 watts.

18650 battery delivers a maximum voltage of 4.2 V. The usual interval for the battery is 2.5V – 4.2V.

Calculate the current required by the lamp using the formula ampere = watt / volt.

Flashlight required current: 10W / 4.2V = 2.4 A

In general, all flashlights are sufficient for a 5-amp current, which is a standard outdrive for a protective circuit battery. Check out our circuit-protected batteries here. The batteries can be packed more capacity when you don't have to discharge so much power at once.

18650 battery for best flashlight
The Xtar B20 Pilot II flashlight 1100lm needs about 2.5A power. Panasonic and Samsung 18650 batteries with protection circuit are ideal for lamps.


Our favorite flashlights are the Samsung INR18650-35E 3500mAh battery protection circuit.

If your flashlight is very powerful and heats up a lot, the Panasonic NCR18650B 3400mAh protective circuit is right for you. Panasonic's NCR18650B battery battery chemistry effectively leads heat away from the battery, prolonging its lifespan.

2. Do I need a protective battery?


The protective circuit limits the battery output to a maximum of 8 amps. If you are buying a battery in the luminaire, take a protective circuit model. If you buy a battery for a power tool, such as a vacuum cleaner or drill, you need more discharge power, take a protective circuitless model. If you need a vape battery, take a lot of amps.

The protective circuit also increases the battery length by about 3mm. Make sure the 68mm long battery fits in your device!


3. Flat-top or button top – what does that even mean?


See our article on battery terms: What does button top mean? Battery terms in plain language

Operating temperature

High temperature shortens battery life. It's easy to tell in cell phone batteries, the more often the battery gets hot, the less power it contains. The maximum operating temperature of lithium batteries is usually indicated at 60°C. The more the battery spends at temperatures between 60°C and 80°C, the faster it dies.

Batteryuniversity test Li-ion batteries were stored at different temperatures. Below are the results:

Temperature 40% allocation 100% allocation
0°C 98% (after year) 94% (after year)
25°C 96% (after year) 80% (after year)
40°C 85% (after year) 65% (after year)
60°C 75% (after year) 60% (after 3 months!)

The fastest lithium battery can be killed by storing it 100% full (18,650 in a battery above 4.1 Volts) and letting the battery heat up, for example, by discharging it with high current for a long time.

A better heat tolerance can be achieved in the battery with different battery chemistry, as Panasonic has done with its NCR18650B battery.

18650 Panasonic freezing
Panasonic NRC18650PD 2800mAh battery discharge with 3A current at different temperatures.


-10°C frost reduced the capacity of the 2800mAh battery cell by about 30%. Li-Ion batteries are more resistant to frost.



best 18650 battery kelpie

The surest way to get quality is by choosing a reliable manufacturer's battery. The voltages and capacities of the cheapest batteries may vary, and the high capacity battery is no longer one after a few recharges.

Currently, the Sony VTC5A has an excellent balance of capacity and power. It's been good at tests at our house, as well as around the world.

Proakku .en 18650 battery TOP10 list

  1. Sony VTC5A 2600mAh 
  2. Samsung INR18650-30Q 3000mAh 20A
  3. Sanyo NCR18650GA 3450mAh 10A
  4. Sanyo NCR18650GA 3450mAh 10A Protection Circuit for Flashlights
  5. LG HG2 3000mAh 20A
  6. Samsung INR18650-25R 2500mAh 20A
  7. Sony VTC6 3000mAh 15A
  8. Samsung INR18650-35E 3500mAh 8A
  9. Panasonic NCR18650B 3400mAh Circuit
  10. LG MJ1 3500mAh 10A especially for battery pack spelt-outs, e.g. for e-bikes



Published Leave a comment

Battery tests – capacity

awt battery test

Purpose of battery tests – test results below in alphabetical order.

Battery test: a real sensor? With these battery tests, we mainly want to ensure that the products we sell are original and have the same performance as given capacity values. We will later also try to include the tests of the largest continuous current, but at this point we rely on the extensive tests mooch has carried out. If the test results we have received have differed a lot from the values indicated by the manufacturer, we have repeated the test 1-2 times, but very rarely the result changes from the previous one.

Why are the measured capacity values lower than those specified by the manufacturer?

Since the battery test can be carried out in many different ways and the result depends on the depth of discharge (final voltage), the level of discharge voltage, contacts, etc. – manufacturers naturally want to show the highest possible values. Since all batteries are charged with the same charger, tested with the same device with the same discharge settings, the battery tests are comparable to each other and give a true picture of the battery performance compared to other batteries we test.

18650 Battery AWT IMR 2500 mAh 35A

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -4 %

awt battery test

18650 battery AWT IMR 2600 mAh 40A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -7 %

battery test safety

18650 battery AWT IMR 3000 mAh 40A

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -4 %



18650 battery AWT ICR 3400 mAh 6A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -2 %


18650 Battery AWT IMR 3500 mAh 35A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -3 %


18650 battery for LG B4 ICR 2600mAh 5A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -7 %


18650 Battery for LG HE4 IMR 2500mAh 35A

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -4 %



18650 battery for LG HG2 3000mAh 20A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -5 %

LG HG2 18650 Battery Test


18650 battery for LG MJ1 3500mAh 10A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -7 %

LG MJ1 battery test


18650 Battery for Panasonic NCR 3400 mAh 6,8A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -3 %

Panasonic 18650 battery test


18650 Battery for Samsung 26F 2600 mAh 5A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -3 %



18650 Battery for Samsung INR18650-25R 2500mAh 20A

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -1%



18650 Battery for Samsung INR18650-30Q 3000mAh 20A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -3 %



18650 battery Sanyo NCR18650GA 3450mAh 10A (actually 20A continuous!)

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -4 %

Battery test genuine sanyo 18650

18650 battery Sanyo UR18650NSX 2600mAh 20A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -6 %


18650 Battery for Sony VTC4 2100 mAh 30A

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -4 %

Sony VTC4 18650 battery test


18650 Battery for Sony VTC5 2600mAh 30A

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -1 %

Sony VTC5 battery test

18650 Battery for Sony VTC5A 2600mAh 35A

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -9 %

Sony VTC5A battery test


18650 battery with Xtar 2200mAh circuit

Difference between measured and declared capacity in % +13 %

Xtar 2200mAh Battery Test 18650


18650 battery with Xtar 2600mAh circuit

Percentage difference between measured and declared capacity -2 %



18650 battery with Xtar 3400mAh circuit

Percentage of measured and declared capacity -8 %


1 1

There are also comprehensive battery tests in English:

Battery test: genuine 18650 lithium battery, you can count on the cells we sell!

Published Leave a comment

What does button top mean? Battery terms in plain language


What does button top mean? And what is the difference between a protective battery and a non-protected battery?

This article provides an overview of the most common terms. Read the text and you'll know which battery to buy when you understand how they differ.

General battery term

mAh – milliamperehour : battery capacity, how much to provide in the tank

A – Ampere – battery outlet: how fast the tank can get power into the yard

V – Volt – battery voltage, e.g. 3.7 V

Why is the battery 18650 or 20700?

Batteries of different sizes are available for different applications.

The most common battery size is 18650. The name refers to the physical size of the battery. The first two letters (18) indicate the battery diameter in millimetres. The following letters (650) indicate the battery length. Thus, the 18650 battery has a diameter of 18mm and a length of 65mm.

The 18650 battery diameter is 18mm and the length is 65mm.

The same is true of course for other batteries, such as the 20700, from which the next most common battery size and 18650 battery replacements are 20mm x 70mm.


But 18,650 isn't always 65 million tall. If a protective circuit has been added to the battery, its length is 2-4mm longer, depending on the manufacturer.

circuit battery sony panasonic
Sonyn suosittu VTC5 akku vierekkäin Panasonic NCR18650B akun kanssa. Molemmat ovat 18650 akkuja, mutta Panasonicin pituutta kasvattaa lisätty suojapiiri.

If you are ordering protective circuit batteries, make sure that your device is in room space. See here for protective circuit batteries cheaply and with fast delivery directly from our Turku warehouse.

What's a protective circuit?

The protective circuit on the battery prevents the battery from overcharging and overcharging. In flashlight operation, a protective circuit is necessary, as the lamps rarely have their own electronics to protect the battery from overdismantling. Lithium batteries should not be allowed to be over-empty, it will significantly reduce battery life!

Why aren't all batteries protective then? The downside of the shield is the limitation of the output flow. The protective circuit battery is unable to give out as many amps as the unprotected ones. High-power devices, such as vacuum cleaners, have their own electronics to protect the batteries. That's why your Dyson goes out just before you can vacuum the whole house.

You will recognize the shield inserted into the bottom of the protective circuit battery and the conductor on the side of the battery that connects the terminals.

Panasonic button top circuit

What does that button top mean then?

The batteries differ not only in size, but also in terms of poles. The majority of flashlights require a so-called button top battery. It literally means a button-headed battery. Another option is a flat-top, i.e. a flat-headed battery.

mita means button top
Select the battery hub according to the purpose. Most of the flashlights require a protruding pole, i.e. a button top button head.
Sony VTC5A best 18650 battery
Sony VTC5A is an improved version of Sony's public favourite VTC5 18650 battery. VTC5A delivers up to 35A output current!